RAILROAD SIGNALS of the U.S.
GRADE CROSSING PROTECTION
Flashing Only Installations
Standard Crossing Gates
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This section briefly touches on grade crossing protection of all sorts, and is by no means comprehensive. It combines all of the separate pages I previously had on these signals, sorry for it's size, (and it may get bigger).
For pedestrian crossing gates, click here.
Simple Flashing Only Installations
Near Union Bridge MD
This unused crossing signal is on the former Western Maryland line between Reisterstown and Hagerstown MD
Standard Crossing Gates
This section contains what we have come to expect as the standard grade crossing - crossing gate in the U.S.
Simple installations consist of just
the crossing gates themselves. More elaborate installations will often add
a cantilever type signal bridge with one or more pairs of flashing lights,
as many newer installations are.
A excellent picture resource on American grade crossings can be found at: http://www.rxrsignals.net
Clifton VA - on the ex Southern Rwy (NS)
Located halfway between Fairfax and Manassas VA, is this
quaint little spot called Clifton, contains a set of standard US&S crossing
gates. The left picture is the gate on the south side of the tracks, the other
two are of the signal on the north side.
This crossing gate is on the former
Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Rwy (now CSX). Notice the signal also
has a "no left turn" light on it.
In the middle of 2005, the Maryland MTA was in the middle of double tracking the light rail on the northside of the system, from the shops northward. This crossing is at Timonium Road when they were in the middle of replacing track. If you notice, the sign says "3 tracks". Back in the old Pennsy through Conrail days, there used to be three tracks here because of a siding that used to go into Saco Lumber.
Wig-Wag signals were an early form of grade crossing protection for automobiles wishing to cross a railroad right-of-way. In the early 1900's, as traffic volumes increased with both the railroads and automobiles, the number of grade crossing accidents rose, along with casualties. The railroads attempted to produce some sort of signal that would alert drivers to the presence of an oncoming train. The familiar "stop, look, and listen" signs were no longer effective once car manufacturers enclosed the car compartment, and hearing an approaching train became difficult.
According to Wikipedia, one of the earliest attempts to make a moving mechanical signal was by Pacific Electric of Los Angeles. They reasoned that the familiar grade crossing attendant, making a swinging motion with his lamp to alert motorists, was a good choice, and developed a machine that would simulate that motion. The first version used gears and was made in house, and was difficult to maintain. They eventually decided to use two electro-magnets to pull the banner back and forth, which also allowed the banner to sit "in the middle" when at rest.
Wig-Wags were made by a number of manufacturers: WRRS (Western Railroad Supply), Magnetic Signal Company, and US&S.
Someone in L.A. probably saw the signals on the PE, and decided to capitalize on the "success" of the design. My guess is that the Pacific Electric, being a transit company, probably wasn't overly concerned with filing a patent on their creation. (Don't quote me on this, it's only conjecture). So, the Magnetic Flagman company was originally based in Los Angeles. After WWII, the company was bought by the Griswold Company of Minneapolis. Models made in Minneapolis are rare today.
There are three predominant styles of wig-wags: 1) upper quadrant, 2) lower quadrant, and 3) enclosed. Enclosed wig-wags were also called "banjo's". With upper quadrant wig-wags, the banner sat above the motor housing, and required the use of a counter weight below the motor to bring the banner to rest in the middle. A lower quadrant wig-wag had the banner hanging from the motor housing, and as such, did not require the use of a counter weight to hang in the middle when at rest. "Enclosed" wig-wags were top-of-mast style signals, where the motor was supported by a "harp".
(L) An "enclosed" WRRS wig-wag in my backyard signal graveyard.
(R) A lower quadrant Magnetic Signal wig-wag in Ashland Oregon, photo by Robert Ashworth
Most wig-wags were single units, a few double wig-wags did exist however. The last one I know of was in Roseburg Indiana, as shown below. Photo by Aaron Border, and was taken around the time I stopped thru town chasing the GP-30's of the Central of Indiana RR. Roseburg is east of Kokomo.
A rare double lower-quadrant wig-wag in Roseburg IN
If you look hard, you may still be able to find one still in operation, but they are becoming increasingly rare, and can usually only be found on less used tracks.
The N&W used to have hundreds of wig-wags in use, most apparently from WRRS. Most were gone by the late 70's, with a few surviving in the early 80's. The last one may have been in Copenhaver (from a thread on N&W wig-wags).
One very interesting use for wig-wag
signals is contained below in the link to the Santa Fe Historical Society's page
on wig-wag's used on that railroad to communicate to the engineer a highball
condition or a stop condition, check it out! This was before the days of
For more information, and pictures,
check out these resources:
Dan's Wig-Wag site: http://www.trainweb.org/dansrailpix/WIG_WAG_PAGE1c.htm
The South Bay Historical Railroad Society's wig-wag: http://www.sbhrs.org/museum/Artifacts/Wigwag/wigwag.html
The Santa Fe's Historical Society's page on wig-wags used on cabooses: http://www.atsfrr.net/resources/Sandifer/WigWag/Index.htm
N&W Historical Society thread on wig-wags: http://list.nwhs.org/pipermail/nw-mailing-list/Week-of-Mon-20060904/004971.html
A wig-wag in Ashland OR, and other stuff by Robert Ashworth: http://www.theslowlane.com/04trip/wigwag.html
WRRS Wig-Wag, on display in Durand
Michigan in the railroad park.
HERE for my railfan guide to Durand.
WRRS Magnetic Autoflag Wig-Wag in my backyard
This signal came off the CNW in Wisconsin, and was purchased from a railroad museum in western Wisconsin in 2000.
For more pix of WRRS wig-wags, check out Dan's page at:
At the Chattanooga Choo-Choo in Chattanooga TN
Rotating Banner signals combined standard flashing lights with crossbucks and a rotating stop sign. Upon activation, the flashing lights would come on, and the stop sign, which was at right angles to the roadway, to turn 90 degrees so that it was visible to oncoming traffic.
These signals were very popular in the Minneapolis area because they were manufactured by Griswold which was based there. They were also popular on some of the Midwest and Western roads such as the CNW, the Soo Line, the NP, and the Minneapolis and St Louis.
WRRS also made a version of the Rotating Banner, known as the Model 6, and was used on roads such as the CRIP, the CGW, and the CB&Q.
The Griswolds can still
be found on the less used lines around Minneapolis, especially those used by the
Minnesota Commercial on the line between St Paul and Northtown Yard south of
Fridley. None of the ones I saw however had the stop signs left on them.
There are also a few left on the abandoned Soo R-O-W heading south out of
Minneapolis, where I found the one below.
Burnsville MN area
Grade crossing at 155th St W and Kenwood Trail.... 1/2mi north of 162nd St W, which is exit 86 off of interstate 35. The old station is still standing (or should I more correctly say "shelter").
Plymouth MN - NW of Minneapolis
Two complete Griswolds guard a no-longer existing grade crossing.
A big thanks to Jim Mihalek for finding and taking detail pictures of these fellas!
North of Duluth MN
A set of three pictures from the days of yore, showing the Griswolds that operated along the Erie Mining RR tracks in upper Minnesota by Jim Mihalek. I wonder if the signals are still there?
The F Units were trashed in a runaway wreck back in 1997...... darn. LTV Steel took over Erie Mining in 1987, and made its last run in 2001. F Unit #4211 was donated to the Lake Superior Railroad Museum (Duluth MN) in 2006. Again, a huge thanks to Jim Mihalek for these pictures!
Misc Grade Crossing Protection Devices
This grade crossing signal protects
a private grade crossing on the Norfolk Southern (ex N&W), between Salem and
Christiansburg VA. As the sign says, the lamp goes dark when a train is
approaching. Salem is to the left (to the north), and
Christiansburg to the right. The signal heads are PL heads off of a standard
Pennsy/N&W style PL signal.
A lot of good action shots of NS coal freights can be had in this great railfanning area! My daughter went to Virginia Tech, and it provided me the opportunity for a lot of good opportunities. This signal can be found on my Salem to Christiansburg VA chase map, located here, which is part of my Roanoke railfan guide series, check it out!
I love trains, and I love signals. I am not an expert. My webpages reflect what I find on the topic of the page. This is something I have fun with while trying to help others. My webpages are an attempt at putting everything I can find of the subject in one convenient place. There are plenty of other good websites to help me in this effort, and they are listed in the links section on my indexa page, or as needed on individual pages. Please do not write to me about something that may be incorrect, and then hound the heck out of me if I do not respond to you in the manner you would like. I operate on the "Golden Rule Principle", and if you are not familiar with it, please acquaint yourself with how to treat people by reading Mathew 7:12 (among others, the principle exists in almost every religion). If you contact me (like some do, hi Paul) and try to make it a "non-fun" thing and start with the name calling, your name will go into my spambox list! :-)
Please Note: Since the main focus of my two websites is railroad signals, the railfan guides are oriented towards the signal fan being able to locate them. For those of you into the modeling aspect of our hobby, my indexa page has a list of almost everything railroad oriented I can think of to provide you with at least a few pictures to help you detail your pike.
If this is a railfan page, every effort has been made to make sure that the information contained on this map and in this railfan guide is correct. Once in a while, an error may creep in, especially if restaurants or gas stations open, close, or change names. Most of my maps are a result of personal observation after visiting these locations. I have always felt that a picture is worth a thousand words", and I feel annotated maps such as the ones I work up do the same justice for the railfan over a simple text description of the area. Since the main focus of my website is railroad signals, the railfan guides are oriented towards the signal fan being able to locate them. Since most of us railheads don't have just trains as a hobby, I have also tried to point out where other interesting sites of the area are.... things like fire stations, neat bridges, or other significant historical or geographical feature. While some may feel they shouldn't be included, these other things tend to make MY trips a lot more interesting.... stuff like where the C&O Canal has a bridge going over a river (the Monocacy Aqueduct) between Point of Rocks and Gaithersburg MD, it's way cool to realize this bridge to support a water "road" over a river was built in the 1830's!!!
My philosophy: Pictures and maps are worth a
thousand words, especially for railfanning. Text descriptions only
get you so far, especially if you get lost or disoriented. Take
along good maps.... a GPS is OK to get somewhere, but maps are still
better if you get lost! I belong to AAA, which allows you to get
local maps for free when you visit the local branches. ADC puts
out a nice series of county maps for the Washington DC area, but their
state maps do not have the railroads on them. If you can find em,
I like the National Geographic map book of the U.S..... good, clear, and
concise graphics, and they do a really good job of showing you where
tourist type attractions are, although they too lack the railroads.
Other notes about specific areas will show up on that page if known.
By the way, floobydust is a term I picked up 30-40 years ago from a National Semiconductor data book, and means miscellaneous and/or other stuff.
Pictures and additional information is always needed if anyone feels inclined to take 'em, send 'em, and share 'em, or if you have something to add or correct.... credit is always given! BE NICE!!! Contact info is here
Beware: If used as a source, ANYTHING from Wikipedia must be treated as being possibly being inaccurate, wrong, or not true.
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Last Modified 21-Feb-2016